The Niagara County Department of Health is providing tips and resources to make this Thanksgiving safe and bacteria-free.
“Poultry, including turkey, contains harmful pathogens such as salmonella and campylobacter that can lead to serious foodborne illness,” said Daniel Stapleton, public health director. “We encourage those preparing thanksgiving meals to follow these necessary tips to ensure your family has a safe and healthy feast.”
“Controlling the temperature just right will reduce the production of unsafe toxins that can make the meat unsafe, even after cooking,” stated Scott Ecker, associate supervisory public health sanitarian.
“Never thaw a turkey at room temperature,” he added.
It is very important to thaw a frozen turkey completely by one of the following two methods:
•The safest way is on a plate in the refrigerator (around 40 degrees) – which can take five hours per pound. Thawing usually takes more than three days.
•If the first method is not an option (due to time/space), the turkey may be placed in a water bath. Use a large pot in the kitchen sink and continuously run cold water over the bird – which can take 30 minutes per pound, often 10 hours. The turkey needs to be totally submerged in the water, and the sink drain cannot be plugged (so excess water, as it runs over the side of the pot, can go down the drain). A bird thawed in a water bath needs to be cooked as soon as possible once thawed, as it is vulnerable to bacterial growth.
Wash Your Hands, But Not Your Turkey
Washing your hands before cooking is the simplest way to stop the spread of bacteria. The USDA advises not to wash your turkey, as it is the easiest way to spread bacteria all over your kitchen. The exception to this rule is brining.
When rinsing brine off a turkey, be sure to remove all other food or objects from the sink, layer the area with paper towels, and allow a slow stream of water to avoid splashing. All surfaces (including the preparer’s hands) should be cleaned with sanitizing solution comprised of ½-teaspoon bleach in one-gallon water.
Stuffing Turkey is NOT Advised
Even if the turkey is cooked to the correct internal temperature, the stuffing inside may not have reached a temperature high enough to kill the bacteria. If you still choose to stuff the turkey, stuff the bird just before placing in a pre-heated oven.
All of the stuffing needs to be removed from the bird immediately after removing from the oven. Any stuffing that will not be served must be put into the refrigerator.
Cook Turkey to 165ºF
To avoid foodborne illness, make sure the turkey is cooked to 165ºF as measured by a food thermometer.
“To ensure cooking temperatures are met, a dial-faced, probe-type thermometer that has a range from 0ºF to 220ºF with delineation for every 2ºF is recommended,” Ecker said.
The bird’s temperature should be taken in three areas: the thickest part of the breast, the innermost part of the wing, and the innermost part of the thigh. Make sure all three locations are at 165ºF. If one of those locations does not register at 165ºF, then continue cooking until all three locations reach 165ºF.”
Follow Two-Hour Rule for Leftovers
Any meat, stuffing or other perishable foods should not be left on the table or countertops for longer than two hours. After two hours, bacteria can rapidly multiply and, if eaten, you could get sick. The food should not be deeper than 4" and placed in a container left uncovered until the food is cold. Then it may be stored in the refrigerator.
Leftovers should stay safe in the refrigerator for four days and need to be reheated to a minimum of 165ºF prior to consuming.
If you have questions about your Thanksgiving dinner, call the USDA meat and poultry hotline at 1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854) to talk to a food safety expert. The meat and poultry hotline is available from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Thanksgiving Day.
More information about how to safely select, thaw and prepare a turkey may be found at https://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/types/turkey/.